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Publications

   
Peer-Reviewed Articles
                 
Linden A. A comprehensive set of post-estimation measures to enrich interrupted time series analysis. Stata Journal 2017;17:73-88.
Linden A, Yarnold PR. Using classification tree analysis to generate propensity score weights. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice DOI:10.1111/jep.12744
Linden A. Improving causal inference with a doubly robust estimator that combines propensity score stratification and weighting. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice DOI:10.1111/jep.12714
Linden A. A comparison of approaches for stratifying on the propensity score to reduce bias. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice DOI: 10.1111/jep.12701
Linden A. Persistent threats to validity in single-group interrupted time series analysis with a crossover design. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2017;23:419-425.
Linden A. Challenges to validity in single-group interrupted time series analysis. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2017;23:413-418.
Yarnold PR, Linden A. Theoretical aspects of the D statistic. Optimal Data Analysis 2016;5:171-174.
Yarnold PR, Linden A. Novometric analysis with ordered class variables: The optimal alternative to linear regression analysis. Optimal Data Analysis 2016;5:65-73.
Linden A. Maximizing Predictive Accuracy By P. R. Yarnold R. C. Soltysik. ODA Books, Chicago, IL, 2016, $98.00, 396 pp. ISBN 0 692 70092 7. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2016;22:835-838.
Linden A, Yarnold PR.Combining machine learning and propensity score weighting to estimate causal effects in multivalued treatments. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2016;22:875-885.
Linden A, Yarnold PR. Combining machine learning and matching techniques to improve causal inference in program evaluation. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2016;22:868-874.
Yarnold PR, Linden A. Using machine learning to model dose-response relationships via ODA: eliminating response variable baseline variation by ipsative standardization. Optimal Data Analysis 2016(5):41-52.
Linden A, Yarnold PR, Nallomothu BK. Using machine learning to model dose-response relationships. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2016;22:860-867.
Linden A, Yarnold PR. Using machine learning to identify structural breaks in single-group interrupted time series designs. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2016;22:855-859.
Linden A, Yarnold PR. Using machine learning to assess covariate balance in matching studies. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2016;22:848-854.
Linden A, Yarnold PR. Using data mining techniques to characterize participation in observational studies. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2016;22:839-847.
Linden A, Uysal SD, Ryan A, Adams JL. Estimating causal effects for multivalued treatments: A comparison of approaches. Statistics in Medicine 2016;(35):534-552.
Linden A. Conducting interrupted time series analysis for single and multiple group comparisons. Stata Journal 2015;15(2):480-500.
Linden A. Estimating measurement error of the Patient Activation Measure for respondents with partially missing data. BioMed Research International 2015;1-7.
Linden A. Graphical displays for assessing covariate balance in matching studies. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2015;21(1):242-247.
Linden A, Butterworth SW. A comprehensive hospital-based intervention to reduce readmissions for chronically ill patients: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Managed Care 2014;20(10):783-792.
Linden A. Combining propensity score-based stratification and weighting to improve causal inference in the evaluation of health care interventions. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2014;20(6):1065-1071.
Linden A. Review of An Introduction to Stata for Health Researchers, Fourth Edition, by Juul and Frydenberg. Stata Journal  2014;14(3):697-700.
Linden A. Assessing regression to the mean effects in health care initiatives. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013;(119):1-7.
Linden A, Karlson KB. Using mediation analysis to identify causal mechanisms in disease management interventions. Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology 2013;13:86-108.
Linden A, Samuels SJ. Using balance statistics to determine the optimal number of controls in matching studies. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2013;19(5):68-975.
Elissen AMJ, Adams JL, Spreeuwenberg M, Duimel-Peeters IGP, Spreeuwenberg C, Linden A, Vrijhoef HJM. Advancing current approaches to disease management evaluation: capitalizing on heterogeneity to understand what works and for whom. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013;13(40)1-12.
Linden A, Samuels SJ. Estimating measurement error when annualizing health care costs. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2013;19(5):933-937.
Linden A, Adams JL. Combining the regression-discontinuity design and propensity-score based weighting to improve causal inference in program evaluation. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2012;18(2):317-325.
Linden A, Bonollo M, Fiddes K. A successful hospital-based disease management program to reduce admissions among patients with multiple chronic illnesses. International Journal of Person Centered Medicine 2011;1(4):675-682.
Linden A, Adams JL. Applying a propensity-score based weighting model to interrupted time series data: improving causal inference in program evaluation. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2011;17:1231-1238.
Linden A. Identifying spin in health management evaluations. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice2011;17:1223-1230.
Linden A. Designing a prospective study when randomization is not feasible. Evaluation & the Health Professions 2011;34(2):164-180.
Couto J, Webster L, Romney M, Leider H, Linden A. Use of an algorithm applied to urine drug screening to assess adherence to a hydrocodone regimen. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics 2011;36(2):200-207.
Linden A, Biuso TJ, Butterworth SW. Help patients with chronic kidney disease stave off dialysis. Journal of Family Practice 2010;59(4):212-219.
Linden A, Butterworth SW, Prochaska JO. Motivational interviewing-based health coaching as a chronic care intervention. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2010;16:166-174.
Linden A, Adams JL. Using propensity score-based weighting in the evaluation of health management programme effectiveness. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2010;16:175-179.
Linden A, Adams JL. Evaluating health management programmes over time. Application of propensity score-based weighting to longitudinal data. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2010;16:180-185.
Couto J, Webster L, Romney M, Leider H, Linden A. Using an algorithm applied to urine drug screening to assess adherence to an OxyContin regimen. Journal of Opiod Management 2009;5(6):359-364.
Linden A, Adams JL. Improving participant selection in disease management programmes: insights gained from propensity score stratification. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2008;14(5):914-918.
Linden A. Sample size in disease management program evaluation: the challenge of demonstrating a statistically significant reduction in admissions. Disease Management 2008;11(2):95-101.

Linden A, Adler-Milstein J. Medicare disease management in a policy context. Health Care Finance Review 2008;29(3):1-11.

Rastogi A, Linden A, Nissenson AR. Disease management in chronic kidney disease. Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease 2008;15(1):19-28.

Linden A, Biuso TJ, Gopal A, Barker AF, Cigarroa J, Haranath SP, Rinkevich D, Stajduhar K. Consensus development and application of ICD-9 codes for defining chronic illnesses and their complications. Disease Management & Health Outcomes 2007;15(5):315-322.
Butterworth S, Linden A, McClay W. Health coaching as an intervention in health management programs. Disease Management & Health Outcomes 2007;15(5):299-307.
Linden A, Goldberg S. The case-mix of chronic illness hospitalization rates in a managed care population: implications for health management programmes. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2007;13(6):947-951.
Linden A, Berg GD, Wadhwa S. Evaluation of a Medicaid asthma disease management program. Disease Management 2007;10(5):266-272.
Linden A. Use of the total population approach to measure U.S. disease management industry's cost savings: issues and implications. Disease Management & Health Outcomes 2007;15(1):13-18.
Linden A. Estimating the effect of regression to the mean in health management programs. Disease Management & Health Outcomes 2007;15(1):7-12.
Biuso TJ, Butterworth S, Linden A. Targeting prediabetes with lifestyle, clinical and behavioral management interventions. Disease Management 2007;10(1):6-15.
Linden A, Adams J. Determining if disease management saves money: an introduction to meta-analysis. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2007;13(3):400-407.
Linden A. Is Israel ready for disease management? Israel Medical Association Journal 2006;8(10):667-671.
Butterworth S, Linden A, McClay M, Leo MC. The effect of motivational interviewing-based health coaching on employees' physical and mental health status. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 2006;11(4):358-365.
Linden A. Biuso TJ. In search of financial savings from disease management: Applying the number needed to decrease (NND) analysis to a diabetic population. Disease Management & Health Outcomes 2006;14(4):197-202.
Linden A, Trochim WMK, Adams J. Evaluating program effectiveness using the regression point displacement design. Evaluation & the Health Professions 2006;29(4):407-423.

Linden A. What will it take for disease management to demonstrate a return on investment? New perspectives on an old theme. American Journal of Managed Care 2006;12(4):217-222.

Winner of the 2006 DMAA Award for "Outstanding Journal Article"

Linden A, Butterworth SW, Roberts N. Disease management interventions II: What else is in the black box? Disease Management 2006;9(2):73-85.
Linden A. Evaluating the effectiveness of home health as a disease management strategy. Home Health Care Management & Practice 2006;18(3):216-222.
Linden A, Adams J, Roberts N. Evaluating disease management program effectiveness: an introduction to the regression-discontinuity design. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2006;12(2):124-131.
Linden A, Adams J, Roberts N. Strengthening the case for disease management effectiveness: unhiding the hidden bias. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2006;12(2):140-147.
Linden A, Adams J. Evaluating disease management program effectiveness: an introduction to instrumental variables. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2006;12(2):148-154.
Linden A, Roberts N. Using visual displays as a tool to demonstrate disease management program effectiveness. Disease Management 2005;8(5):301-310.
Linden A, Adams J, Roberts N. Using propensity scores to construct comparable control groups for disease management program evaluation. Disease Management & Health Outcomes 2005;13(2):107-127.
Linden A, Adams J, Roberts N. Evaluating disease management program effectiveness adjusting for enrollment (tenure) and seasonality. Research in Healthcare Financial Management 2004;9(1):57-68.
Linden A, Roberts N. Disease management interventions: What’s in the black box? Disease Management 2004;7(4):275-291.
Linden A, Adams J, Roberts N. Evaluating disease management program effectiveness: An introduction to survival analysis. Disease Management 2004;7(3):180-190.
Linden A, Adams J, Roberts N. The generalizability of disease management program results: getting from here to there. Managed Care Interface 2004;17(7):38-45.
Linden A, Adams J, Roberts N. Using an empirical method for establishing clinical outcome targets in disease management programs. Disease Management 2004;7(2):93-101.
Linden A, Adams J, Roberts N. Evaluation methods in disease management: determining program effectiveness. Position Paper for the Disease Management Association of America (DMAA). October 2003.
Linden A, Adams J, Roberts N. Evaluating disease management program effectiveness: An introduction to time series analysis. Disease Management 2003;6(4):243-255.
Linden A, Adams J, Roberts N. An assessment of the total population approach for evaluating disease management program effectiveness. Disease Management 2003;6(2): 93-102.
Linden A, Roberts N, Keck K. The complete “how to” guide for selecting a disease management vendor. Disease Management 2003;6(1):21-26.
Linden A. A Risk Adjusted Method of Analysis for Bed-day Reporting at CareAmerica Health Plans. Doctoral Dissertation, 1997.
Linden A, Holland GJ, Loy SF, Vincent WJ. A physiological comparison of forward vs reverse wheelchair ergometry. Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise 1993;25(11):1265-1268.
   
  Book Chapters

Linden A. Designing a prospective study when randomization is not feasible. In: Bausell RB, eds. Healthcare Evaluation. Volume II: Methods and Design. London: Sage; 2012:187-201.

Adler-Milstein J, Linden A. The use and evaluation of IT in chronic disease management. In: Ashish D, eds. Handbook of Research on IT Management and Clinical Data Administration in Healthcare. Hershey, PA: IGI Publishing; 2009:1-18.

Linden A. Wilson T, Duncan I, Berg G. Perspectives on assessing outcomes: disease management methods. In: Hay J, Rindress D, eds. Managing disease: a comprehensive guide. Washington DC: DMAA; 2007:95-113.

Linden A. Pharmaceutical industry research and development.

In: Schweitzer SO. Pharmaceutical economics and policy.

New York: Oxford Press; 1997:21-41.

Linden A. Pharmaceutical regulation and cost containment.

In: Schweitzer SO. Pharmaceutical economics and policy.

New York: Oxford Press; 1997:171-193.

   
  Letters-to-the Editor
Linden A. “Truth in advertising.” Health Affairs. 2008;27(5):1482-1483. Re: Holmes AM, Ackermann RD, Zillich AJ, Katz BP, Downs SM, Inui TS. "The net fiscal impact of a chronic disease management program: Indiana Medicaid, "Health Affairs. 2008;(3):855–864.
Linden A. “Narrow model.” Health Affairs. 2008;27(3):899-900. Re: Billings J, Mijanovich T.“Improving the Management of Care for High-Cost Medicaid Patients,” Health Affairs. 2007;26(6):1643–1655.

Wilson T, Linden A. “Measuring diabetes management.” Health Affairs. 2004;23(6):277.  Re: Villagra A, Ahmed T.  “Effectiveness of a disease management program for patients with diabetes.”  Health Affairs. 2004;23(4):255-266.

Linden A, Wilson TW. “Care management for heart failure.” Ann Intern Med.  2005;142 (5):386. Re: DeBusk RF, Miller NH, Parker KM, Bandura A, Kraemer HC, Cher DJ, et al. “Care management for low-risk patients with heart failure: a randomized, controlled trial.” Ann Intern Med. 2004;141:606-13.

Wilson TW, Linden A. “Asthma disease management effectiveness:  Were the controls equivalent to the cases?”  Am J Manag Care 2005;(3):136.  Re: Tinkelman D, Wilson S. Asthma disease management: Regression to the mean or better? Am J Manag Care. 2004;10(12):948-54.

Linden A, Wilson TW. Letter to the editor. Circulation: 2005;112(1):e11. Re: Galbreath A, “Long term healthcare and cost outcomes of disease management in a large, randomized community based population with heart failure” Circulation. 2004;110(23):3518-26.

Wilson TW, Linden A. “Potential bias in ‘controls’ used in a heart failure disease management program.” J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53(7):1268. Re: Berg GD, Wadhwa S, Johnson AE. “A matched-cohort study of health services utilization and financial outcomes for a heart failure disease-management program in elderly patients.” J Am Geriatr Soc 2004;52:1-7.

Wilson TW, Linden A. “Disease management economic value:  Unproven?” Health Affairs. 2005;24(2):566-567. Re:Fireman B, Bartlett J, Selby J. Can disease management reduce health care costs by improving quality?  Health Affairs. 2004;23(6):63-75.

 
Peer-Reviewed Abstracts
Linden A. Using an empirical method for setting expectations in quality improvement initiatives. Dis Manage Assoc America, Annual Meeting, 2003.
Linden A. Using time series analysis for evaluating disease management program effectiveness. Acad Health Serv Res, Annual Meeting, 2003.
Linden A. The Development of a comprehensive, yet manageable, quality improvement program in a managed care organization; a viable alternative to accreditation? Acad Health Serv Res, Annual Meeting, 2002.
Roberts N, Linden A, Cotter T, Keck K. Improving disease management program enrollment through a provider outreach program. Dis Manage Assoc America, Annual Meeting, 2002.
Linden A, Schweitzer SO. Applying survival analysis to health risk assessment data to predict time to first hospitalization. Acad Health Serv Res, Annual Meeting, 2001.
Linden A, Schweitzer SO. A comparison of chest x-ray rates between physicians who self- refer and those who refer patients out: a case of inappropriate utilization? Acad Health Serv Res, Annual Meeting, 2001.
Linden A, Schweitzer SO. The development of an “episode of care” model for assessing access to care for type II diabetics in a managed care organization. Acad Health Serv Res, Annual Meeting, 2001.
Linden A, Schweitzer SO. Using ARIMA modeling for forecasting bed-days in a Medicare HMO. Acad Health Serv Res, Annual Meeting, 2001.
Linden A, Schweitzer SO. Medicare HMO ambulatory service denials: determinants and consequences. Acad Health Serv Res, Annual Meeting, 2000.
Linden A, Schweitzer SO. Unintended effects of Medicare HMO cost-containment strategies. Acad Health Serv Res, Annual Meeting, 2000.
Linden A, Holland GJ, Loy SF, Vincent WJ. A physiological comparison of forward vs reverse wheelchair ergometry. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;Suppl;25(5):S40.
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